Virtual Server via IP Tunneling (VS/TUN)

IPi tunneling (also called IP encapsulation) is a technique to encapsulate IP datagrams within IP datagrams, which allows datagrams destined for one IP address to be wrapped and redirected to another IP address.

This technique can also be used to build a virtual server: the load balancer tunnels the request packets to the different servers, the servers process the requests, and return the results to the clients directly. Thus, the service appears as a virtual service on a single IP address. The architecture of Virtual Server via IP Tunneling is illustrated in Figure 6-4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 6-4: Architecture of Virtual Server via IP Tunneling.

In the figure, the real servers can have any real IP addresses in any network, and the servers can be geographically distributed. However, each server must support the IP tunneling protocol, and each must have one of their tunnel devices configured with virtual IP.

The flow of VS/TUN is the same as that of VS/NATi. In VS/TUN, the load balancer encapsulates the packet within an IP datagram and forwards it to a dynamically selected server. When the server receives the encapsulated packet, it decapsulates the packet, finds the inner packet destined for the virtual IP address on its tunnel device, processes the request, and returns the result to the user directly.